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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Essentials eBook now available in PDF and ePub formats for only $9.99
RHEL 6 Essentials contains 40 chapters and over 250 pages.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Storage Administration Guide

Deploying and configuring single-node storage in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Edition 0


Edited by

Don Domingo

Engineering Content Services

Red Hat Subject Matter Experts

Josef Bacik

Disk Quotas 
Server Development Kernel File System

Kamil Dudka

Access Control Lists 
Base Operating System Core Services - BRNO

Hans de Goede

Base Operating System Installer

Doug Ledford

Server Development Hardware Enablement

Daniel Novotny

The /proc File System 
Base Operating System Core Services - BRNO

Nathan Straz

Quality Engineering QE - Platform

David Wysochanski

Server Development Kernel Storage


Michael Christie

Online Storage 
Server Development Kernel Storage

Sachin Prabhu

Software Maintenance Engineering

Rob Evers

Online Storage 
Server Development Kernel Storage

David Howells

Server Development Hardware Enablement

David Lehman

Storage configuration during installation 
Base Operating System Installer

Jeff Moyer

Solid-State Disks 
Server Development Kernel File System

Eric Sandeen

ext3, ext4, XFS, Encrypted File Systems 
Server Development Kernel File System

Mike Snitzer

I/O Stack and Limits 
Server Development Kernel Storage

Legal Notice

Copyright © 2010 Red Hat Inc. and others.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries.
MySQL® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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This guide provides instructions on how to effectively manage storage devices and file systems on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. It is intended for use by system administrators with basic to intermediate knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux or Fedora.

1. Document Conventions
1.1. Typographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback
2.1. Do You Need Help?
2.2. We Need Feedback!
1. Overview
1.1. What's New in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
2. Storage Considerations During Installation
2.1. Updates to Storage Configuration During Installation
2.2. Overview of Supported File Systems
2.3. Special Considerations
3. LVM (Logical Volume Manager)
3.1. What is LVM2?
3.2. Using system-config-lvm
3.2.1. Utilizing Uninitialized Entities
3.2.2. Adding Unallocated Volumes to a Volume Group
3.2.3. Migrating Extents
3.2.4. Adding a New Hard Disk Using LVM
3.2.5. Adding a New Volume Group
3.2.6. Extending a Volume Group
3.2.7. Editing a Logical Volume
3.3. References
4. Partitions
4.1. Viewing the Partition Table
4.2. Creating a Partition
4.2.1. Making the Partition
4.2.2. Formatting and Labeling the Partition
4.2.3. Add to /etc/fstab
4.3. Removing a Partition
4.4. Resizing a Partition
5. File System Structure
5.1. Why Share a Common Structure?
5.2. Overview of File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
5.2.1. FHS Organization
5.3. Special Red Hat Enterprise Linux File Locations
5.4. The /proc Virtual File System
6. The Ext3 File System
6.1. Creating an Ext3 File System
6.2. Converting to an Ext3 File System
6.3. Reverting to an Ext2 File System
7. The Ext4 File System
7.1. Creating an Ext4 File System
7.2. Mounting an Ext4 File System
7.3. Resizing an Ext4 File System
7.4. Other Ext4 File System Utilities
8. Global File System 2
9. The XFS File System
9.1. Creating an XFS File System
9.2. Mounting an XFS File System
9.3. XFS Quota Management
9.4. Increasing the Size of an XFS File System
9.5. Repairing an XFS File System
9.6. Suspending an XFS File System
9.7. Backup and Restoration of XFS File Systems
9.8. Other XFS File System Utilities
10. Network File System (NFS)
10.1. How It Works
10.1.1. Required Services
10.2. NFS Client Configuration
10.2.1. Mounting NFS File Systems using /etc/fstab
10.3. autofs
10.3.1. Improvements in autofs Version 5 over Version 4
10.3.2. autofs Configuration
10.3.3. Overriding or Augmenting Site Configuration Files
10.3.4. Using LDAP to Store Automounter Maps
10.4. Common NFS Mount Options
10.5. Starting and Stopping NFS
10.6. NFS Server Configuration
10.6.1. The /etc/exports Configuration File
10.6.2. The exportfs Command
10.6.3. Running NFS Behind a Firewall
10.6.4. Hostname Formats
10.7. Securing NFS
10.7.1. Host Access in NFSv2 or NFSv3
10.7.2. Host Access in NFSv4
10.7.3. File Permissions
10.8. NFS and rpcbind
10.8.1. Troubleshooting NFS and rpcbind
10.9. Using NFS over TCP
10.10. References
11. FS-Cache
11.1. Performance Guarantee
11.2. Setting Up a Cache
11.3. Using the Cache With NFS
11.3.1. Cache Sharing
11.3.2. Cache Limitations With NFS
11.4. Setting Cache Cull Limits
11.5. Statistical Information
11.6. References
12. Encrypted File System
12.1. Mounting a File System as Encrypted
12.2. Additional Information
13. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
13.1. What is RAID?
13.2. Who Should Use RAID?
13.3. RAID Types
13.4. RAID Levels and Linear Support
13.5. Linux RAID Subsystems
13.6. RAID Support in the Installer
13.7. Configuring RAID Sets
13.8. Advanced RAID Device Creation
14. Swap Space
14.1. What is Swap Space?
14.2. Adding Swap Space
14.2.1. Extending Swap on an LVM2 Logical Volume
14.2.2. Creating an LVM2 Logical Volume for Swap
14.2.3. Creating a Swap File
14.3. Removing Swap Space
14.3.1. Reducing Swap on an LVM2 Logical Volume
14.3.2. Removing an LVM2 Logical Volume for Swap
14.3.3. Removing a Swap File
14.4. Moving Swap Space
15. Disk Quotas
15.1. Configuring Disk Quotas
15.1.1. Enabling Quotas
15.1.2. Remounting the File Systems
15.1.3. Creating the Quota Database Files
15.1.4. Assigning Quotas per User
15.1.5. Assigning Quotas per Group
15.1.6. Setting the Grace Period for Soft Limits
15.2. Managing Disk Quotas
15.2.1. Enabling and Disabling
15.2.2. Reporting on Disk Quotas
15.2.3. Keeping Quotas Accurate
15.3. References
16. Access Control Lists
16.1. Mounting File Systems
16.1.1. NFS
16.2. Setting Access ACLs
16.3. Setting Default ACLs
16.4. Retrieving ACLs
16.5. Archiving File Systems With ACLs
16.6. Compatibility with Older Systems
16.7. References
17. Write Barriers
17.1. Importance of Write Barriers
17.2. Enabling/Disabling Write Barriers
17.3. Write Barrier Considerations
18. Storage I/O Alignment and Size
18.1. Parameters for Storage Access
18.2. Userspace Access
18.3. Standards
18.4. Stacking I/O Parameters
18.5. Logical Volume Manager
18.6. Partition and File System Tools
19. Setting Up A Remote Diskless System
19.1. Configuring a tftp Service for Diskless Clients
19.2. Configuring DHCP for Diskless Clients
19.3. Configuring an Exported File System for Diskless Clients
20. Solid-State Disk Deployment Guidelines
20.1. Deployment Considerations
20.2. Tuning Considerations
21. Online Storage Management
21.1. Fibre Channel
21.1.1. Fibre Channel API
21.1.2. Native Fibre Channel Drivers and Capabilities
21.2. iSCSI
21.2.1. iSCSI API
21.3. Persistent Naming
21.3.1. WWID
21.3.2. UUID and Other Persistent Identifiers
21.4. Removing a Storage Device
21.5. Removing a Path to a Storage Device
21.6. Adding a Storage Device or Path
21.7. Configuring a Fibre-Channel Over Ethernet Interface
21.8. Configuring an FCoE Interface to Automatically Mount at Boot
21.9. Scanning Storage Interconnects
21.10. iSCSI Discovery Configuration
21.11. Configuring iSCSI Offload and Interface Binding
21.11.1. Viewing Available iface Configurations
21.11.2. Configuring an iface for Software iSCSI
21.11.3. Configuring an iface for iSCSI Offload
21.11.4. Binding/Unbinding an iface to a Portal
21.12. Scanning iSCSI Interconnects
21.13. Logging In to an iSCSI Target
21.14. Resizing an Online Logical Unit
21.14.1. Resizing Fibre Channel Logical Units
21.14.2. Resizing an iSCSI Logical Unit
21.14.3. Updating the Size of Your Multipath Device
21.15. Adding/Removing a Logical Unit Through
21.16. Modifying Link Loss Behavior
21.16.1. Fibre Channel
21.16.2. iSCSI Settings With dm-multipath
21.16.3. iSCSI Root
21.17. Controlling the SCSI Command Timer and Device Status
21.18. Troubleshooting
22. Device Mapper Multipathing and Virtual Storage
22.1. Virtual Storage
22.2. DM-Multipath
A. Revision History

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